Why do sharks attack? Sharks are carnivorous and may be found in all seas. They associate humans with food.
Sharks do not usually live in fresh waters, but there are exceptions: the river shark and the bull shark.
Most sharks are found in 2,000 metres (7,000 ft) level, in warm environments, but they can also be seen in shallow waters.
While nearly five people lose their lives, every year, due to shark attacks, more than 100 million sharks are killed annually for commercial purposes.
Anti-Shark Systems for Surfers
Surfers are an easy target for sharks, especially in Australia, South Africa and California.
Fortunately, there are effective electronic devices that repel sharks by sending electrical pulses designed to keep deadly predators away from wave riders.
These anti-shark surf gadgets are detected by its sensory receptors, known as Ampullae of Lorenzini, causing mild-to-intolerable discomfort in the predator.
The shark deterrent system may save your life in shark infested waters. You can use the electronic shark defenses in your surf leash or back in the tail of your surfboard.
Most Common Species of Sharks
The Great White Shark
The Tiger Shark
The Bull Shark
The world's most shark-infested regions
Smell, sight, hearing, electroreception and lateral line are the main shark senses. They provide critical information for the activation of protection defenses and attacks.
The average shark life expectancy is of between 20 and 30 years, depending on the species.
Sharks can reach a swim speed of 20 kilometres per hour (12 miles per hour), when preparing an attack. Great white sharks can even peak at 50 kilometres per hour (31 miles per hour).
The most dangerous and deadly species of sharks are the great white shark, the tiger shark and the bull shark. Get details about shark-infested surfing regions.
The requiem shark, the sand tiger shark, the black tip shark, the narrow tooth shark, the hammerhead shark, the spinner shark and the blue shark complete the list of the 10 most lethal species of underwater predators.
How to survive a shark attack
If you sight a shark in the water, first of all, stay as calm as possible.
Do not swim or paddle fast to the shore, otherwise you'll ignite a shark attack.
Track the shark and try to understand if the animal is swimming around or preparing an attack.
Try to find obstacles, corners, cliffs, rocks, boats or shallow waters.
If you're scuba diving, make air bubbles. Sharks don't enjoy bubbles.
Sharks are strong, but they can be beaten.
If a shark attacks, defend yourself by hitting the predator in the eyes and gills. There's a good chance that he will leave the scene.
Finally, swim to the shore. Blood loss should be immediately stopped with clothes, while the medical teams arrive to help you.
The International Shark Attack File has been building and updating the largest shark database in the world, with individual investigations of shark attacks worldwide.
The fear of sharks is known as galeophobia.
Panic, racing heartbeat, nervousness, mental anguish and even dizziness are the most common symptoms when fearing sharks.
Shark phobia can only be treated with hypnotherapy and psychotherapy.
Go undercover to avoid sharks
Sharks are known for their accurate vision. High contrasts are easily spotted by sharks underwater.
Yellow, white and red rash guards and wetsuits are especially visible to sharks, so surfers should avoid them in particularly classic shark-infested waters.
Light reflection caused by watches, jewelry or metal gear, should be reduced, too. Dark blue surf gear is always a good option.