When do the seasons start and end?

Environment
The four seasons: spring, summer, fall and winter | Photo: Shutterstock

Did you know that seasons are not the same for everyone? Have you ever heard of the six-season calendar?

Yes, the dates of when spring, summer, fall/autumn, and winter begin and end depend on anyone's perspective and nationality.

It is fair to recognize, though, that each season has its specific weather pattern, average air temperature, and length of daylight; nature also changes accordingly.

However, seasons aren't the same for meteorologists, astronomers, people living in the Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemispheres, and South Asian citizens.

But why is that the case? The most widely used civil calendar on the planet is the Gregorian calendar.

And for a large number of countries that have adopted them, the beginning and end of seasons take place based on astronomical timings.

Spring and summer: the warmer seasons | Photo: Shutterstock

Two, Four, and Six Season Calendars

As a result, nowadays, the most common spring and fall/autumn equinox dates are March 20 (spring) and September 22 or 23 (fall/autumn).

The most common summer and winter solstice dates are June 21 (summer) and December 21 (winter), with summer solstice being the longest day of the year, and winter solstice being the shortest day of the year.

That's the four-season calendar.

However, when it comes to defining the beginning and the end of seasons, not all countries adopt a universal standard.

You'll find Northern and Southern Hemisphere nuances, as well as regional and national differences.

In Australia and New Zealand, each season starts on the first day of the calendar month.

They follow the meteorological method instead of the astronomical method adopted in North American and Europe - based on surface air temperatures.

In South Asia, the scenario changes dramatically.

Many nations adopt a six-season calendar that comprises spring, summer, monsoon, autumn, early winter/late autumn, and late winter/winter.

Last but not least, a few tropical countries adopted two seasons: the monsoon, wet or rainy season, and the dry season.

In conclusion, only North America and Europe set a Universal Time (UT) for the start and end of their four seasons, even if it has occasionally been realigned in leap years.

When do spring, summer, fall, and winter start and end?

Fall and winter: the colder seasons | Photo: Shutterstock

Seasons Throughout the World | Start and End Time and Dates (2022/2023)

North America & Europe (Except Ireland and Russia) | Greenwich Mean Time (GMT)

  • Summer 2022: June 21 (9:14 am) > September 23 (1:03 am)
  • Fall/Autumn 2022: September 23 (1:04 am) > December 21 (9:47 pm)
  • Winter 2022/2023: December 21 (9:48 pm) > March 20 (9:24 pm)
  • Spring 2023: March 20 (9:25 pm) > June 21 (2:57 pm)
  • Summer 2023: June 21 (2:58 pm) > September 23 (6:49 am)

Ireland & Russia

  • Spring: March 1 > May 31
  • Summer: June 1 > August 31
  • Fall/Autumn: September 1 > November 30
  • Winter: December 1 > February 28/29

Australia & New Zealand

  • Spring: September 1 > November 30
  • Summer: December 1 > February 28/29
  • Fall/Autumn: March 1 > May 31
  • Winter: June 1 > August 31

South Asia

Hindu Season

  • Spring (Vasanta): Mid-March > Mid-May
  • Summer (Greeshma): Mid-May > Mid-July
  • Monsoon (Varsha): Mid-July > Mid-September
  • Autumn (Sharad): Mid-September > Mid-November
  • Early Winter (Hemanta): Mid-November > Mid-January
  • Late Winter (Shishira): Mid-January > Mid-March

Bengali

  • Spring (Bosonto): Mid-February > Mid-April
  • Summer (Grishmo): Mid-April > Mid-June
  • Monsoon (Borsha): Mid-June > Mid-August
  • Autumn (Shorot): Mid-August > Mid-October
  • Late Autumn (Hemonto): Mid-October > Mid-December
  • Winter (Sit): Mid-December > Mid-February